The use of a chalice has direct parrallels with Christianity, as the only other use of cups in ritual forms comes from the Greek Papyri where they were used as part of Love, Passion or Death spells. The only other magical use is associated with skrying. Therefore the use for drinking wine as part of a religious ceremony has very few connections worth mentioning outside that of Christianity.
The Chalice in Wicca is used as part of ritual called "Cakes & Wine" which is a feast that takes place towards the end of a ceremony in order to assist with grounding after energy has been raised.
During initiation, it is the one ritual tool which is often not included amoung the 8 which will be presented to the new initiate.